Due to the fact that the knee joint is quite a complex structure, the injury it has many parts – ligaments, muscles, cartilage and bone. Depending on this share the following types of damage:
Each knee injury listed above, occurs as an acute condition caused by physical impacts on the joint. But some of them may be a consequence of prolonged stress or repetitive actions. For example, Cycling, climbing stairs, jumping and running can cause irritation or inflammation of a particular component in the knee joint.
In medicine there are several injuries related to this type:
But is the most common knee injury in the fall, expressed as a bruise, and crack or fracture.
Injury, by the way, may be different in severity from simple bruises or abrasions on the skin to a state in which the joint of the accumulated blood from the burst after impact of the vessels. This condition in medicine is called hemarthrosis.
In this case, the victim usually complains of knee pain and difficulty walking and joint is markedly increased in the amount and under the skin is sometimes visible bruising.
Often due to accumulated in the joint content patient can not straighten the knee. The most common symptoms of injury of the joint gradually disappear even if untreated. If even after a long time there is a dysfunction of the knee and not passing pain, the victim must complete a survey to ascertain the effects of the injury.
Straight knee kick something hard or jump to his feet from a great height can cause another injury – crush the meniscus between the joint surfaces. And with a sharp move (during coordinated flexion or extension of the leg) meniscus can and does break away from the joint capsule and severed.
By the way, damage to the lateral meniscus (on the inner side surface of the tibia) are found 10 times less frequently than the medial (outer side). When the victim experiences severe pain in the joint, the leg cannot straighten. This later joined and hemarthrosis, as if a strong injury.
Often combined with damage to one or both menisci act and injury of the anterior cruciate and/or tibial collateral ligament.
The reason for this may serve as a blow to the joint, and a sharp coordinated the abduction of the tibia in combination with its outward motion. Outwardly stretching or tearing of ligaments exhibit strong diffuse pain in the limbs, limited mobility of the legs, involuntary tension of her muscles, swelling around the joint, the formation of the effusion and haemarthrosis phenomena.
After a knee injury involving damage to the ligaments, the limb should be kept elevated on a pillow or cushion of clothing superimposed locking knee (but not tight!) bandage for 15-20 min. and cold compress (during the day it can be applied up to 3 times). The patient should be immediately taken to the traumatologist or orthopedist.
After a strong blow with a knee or falling from the height of the victim can detect fractures of the knee cups, the lower part of the femur or upper part of the fibula and tibia.
Called the knee injury is expressed by severe pain, worsening at the slightest movement of the foot, around the joint swelling quickly formed, it becomes immobile and markedly deformed. Patient's temperature can increase and create a strong bruise.
If you suspect broken bones, be sure to hold your foot with any long straight object in one position to avoid displacement of the bone fragments. The leg bandage to the pipe bus, and available wounds treated with an antiseptic solution. To reduce swelling and pain to the knee you can apply an ice compress, which, by the way, keep longer 20 min is not recommended.
The patient should be immediately taken to the hospital for further assistance.
If the patient has a knee injury, the treatment will depend on what the diagnosis is put by the specialists – it can be both outpatient and inpatient. The patient will have to do an x-ray of the damaged joint or ultrasound.
If there is a tear or a pinched meniscus, the patient perform the procedure in his release. In the case when for some reasons this is not possible, conduct stretching of the joint by means of a special apparatus.
In severe cases, tearing of the meniscus, the patient shows a surgical treatment.
For sprains are anti-inflammatory drugs , ointments containing anticoagulants .
Fractures are treated by imposing a special bandage that ensures immobility of the joint, and in the case of presence of multiple fragments is the operation of mapping in anatomically fine. If the damage of the cartilage tissue in the patient shown taking chondroprotectors, promoting its recovery .