Arthrosis of the knee joint

The whole truth about: arthrosis of the knee joint and other interesting information about the treatment.

Arthrosis of the knee joint occupies a leading position in terms of the frequency of occurrence in the group of diseases of arthritic lesions of the joints. In terms of the severity of the course, the disease is in second place after coxarthrosis.

Every fifth person on the planet suffers from gonarthrosis. Especially people over 40 have a predisposition to this ailment and, as noted, in women, the incidence is almost 2 times higher than in men. According to statistics, 7-22% of people in the world suffer from gonarthrosis.

It can be said that in this disease, the articular cartilage cracks, becomes thinner, while losing its fiber and shock-absorbing properties, which, in principle, makes it impossible to soften the periodic blows of the knee joint and the body during movement.

Today we will consider arthrosis of the knee joint, find out what it is, what are the symptoms of this ailment, and also tell you about effective methods of treatment, including at home.

Causes of occurrence

For what reasons arthrosis of the knee joint develops, and what is it? Every day, our knee joints are subjected to physical stress while walking, supporting the weight of the whole body. The cartilage tissue wears out over the years, causing changes in the joint. Therefore, people of advanced age develop arthrosis of the knee joints.

The risk group for gonarthrosis includes people:

  • overweight;
  • suffering from osteoporosis;
  • with hereditary disorders;
  • old age;
  • with specific professions;
  • with metabolic disorders in the body;
  • with micronutrient deficiencies;
  • injured in the spine;
  • practicing some sports.

The disease develops gradually, it is very important to seek qualified help from a doctor in time to avoid limitation of joint movement and disability in the future.

Symptoms

Certain symptoms are observed with arthrosis of the knee. The nature of pain:

  • discomfort after waking up when trying to get up after sitting for a long time;
  • knee pain when standing for a long time;
  • burning and irritation when climbing stairs;
  • night pains, as well as after physical exertion;
  • weakness in the legs, limb limbs.

The most important symptom of gonarthrosis is pain in the knee joint area. In this case, the disease does not arise abruptly, the pain will increase over many months and even years. At first, they will bother the patient only with increased loads on the legs, and then even at rest.

Arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree

Arthrosis of the 1st degree proceeds practically without visible symptoms. This phase of development is characterized by:

  • tired legs;
  • slight decrease in mobility that usually occurs immediately after sleep.

Pain symptoms, if they occur, are manifested in an insignificant degree. At this point, arthrosis of the knee looks like small irregularities on the cartilage tissue and the surface of the bones on an X-ray.

There may also be a slight narrowing of the gap between the bones. At this stage, it is extremely difficult to diagnose pathology, therefore, an X-ray is mandatory.

Arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree

In grade 2 arthrosis of the knee, the symptoms are more pronounced. Pains arise from the minimum load or immediately after it. In the affected part of the leg, pain is caused by almost any movement. After a long enough rest, it usually goes away completely. However, the next physical action immediately causes pain.

At about the second stage of the development of the disease, the following are added to the pain sensations:

  • crunch in the knee joint during movement;
  • decreased ability to bend the leg normally at the knee;
  • changes in the bones of the joint;
  • progressive synovitis.

Rough arthritic crunching of joints, as a rule, is hardly audible at first, but becomes very loud and distinct with the course of the disease. When you try to bend the leg at the knee, there is a sharp pain. In some cases, this can only be done up to an angle of 90 degrees, and then with difficulty and overcoming pain. A change in the shape of the joint also becomes apparent, which is further aggravated by the accumulation of pathological fluid in it.

Arthrosis of the knee joint of grade 3

The characteristic features of the 3rd degree of arthrosis are severe pain, regardless of the amount and intensity of physical activity. The joint bothers a person even at night, this causes significant inconvenience.

The mobility of the knee joint is impaired and the person is no longer able to independently bend the leg at the knee. Sensitivity to weather changes is observed, to which the affected area is very sensitive.

X-ray is able to show global changes in cartilage tissue, joint surface, uncharacteristic growths. O-shaped or X-shaped curvature brings a person to disability.

Diagnostics

The doctor, after listening to the patient's complaints, during the examination, first of all pays attention to visible changes in the structure of the limb (coarseness of the jumps of the bones, deformation), decreased mobility in the joint. Feeling is accompanied by pain, with a shift of the patella, a crunch is heard.

The main method for diagnosing gonarthrosis is X-ray of the joint (while at the first stage, the pathology may not be detected). There may be several such images in order to trace the dynamics of the development of the disease. In addition to X-rays, MRI or computed tomography may be prescribed.

All these studies are necessary to correctly determine the causes of the disease, as well as to differentiate gonarthrosis from other joint diseases.

Methods for the treatment of knee arthrosis

When diagnosed with arthrosis of the knee joint, treatment may include the following methods:

  • drug therapy;
  • massage and manual therapy;
  • surgical intervention;
  • restorative therapy (exercise therapy, physiotherapy and other methods).

Goals of gonarthrosis treatment:

  • eliminate pain;
  • , if possible, restore the destroyed cartilage and ligamentous apparatus;
  • increase the range of motion in the joint.

Massage procedures, physiotherapy exercises and proper balanced nutrition (diet) are very important. If the visit to the doctor is too late or no method has given a result, then an operation on the joint can be performed: the installation of an endoprosthesis is called surgical intervention.

How to treat arthrosis of the knee joint

The main groups of medicines used for the treatment of arthrosis include the following categories:

  1. NSAIDs - a non-steroidal group of anti-inflammatory drugs;
  2. Chondroprotectors;
  3. Healing creams, ointments and rubbing;
  4. Compresses.

Non-steroidal arthrosis, i. e. Inharmonious, anti-inflammatory drugs are traditionally used to eliminate inflammation and pain, since severe pain makes it impossible to start treatment. Only after the pain is eliminated by anti-inflammatory drugs, you can proceed to massage, a complex of therapeutic exercises and physiotherapy procedures.

Hormonal drugs

In the event that NSAID treatment is insufficient and the disease continues to progress, the doctor may prescribe hormonal injections. They belong to the means of "heavy artillery" and help to quickly eliminate pain, relieve inflammation and swelling of the surrounding tissues.

Due to the large number of side effects, hormonal drugs are prescribed in short courses, only in the acute period of the disease, when inflammatory fluid accumulates in the articular cavity. The drug is injected into the joint space no more than 1 time in 10 days.

Chondroprotectors

These are the only medications that directly affect the cause of arthrosis of the joints. Especially in the early stages and especially those containing chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate.

The action of these drugs is based on the restoration of normal production of synovial fluid and damaged cartilage tissue.

Hyaluronic acid

Sufficiently effective in the initial stages of knee arthrosis. Intra-articular injection.

The procedure is not cheap. Helps to reduce abrasion of joint cartilage surfaces. The main thing is that the drug does not enter the bloodstream, there is a risk of embolic complications.

Ointments

There is a large list of ointments and gels designed to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

The list of ointments for knee joints is quite large and is not limited to those listed by us, and the composition of the drugs included in the ointments is similar to each other.

Folk remedies for the treatment of arthrosis

How to treat arthrosis of the knee at home? Some recipes of traditional medicine can supplement drug therapy.

  1. Dandelion flower treatment. Every day you need to eat 5 dandelion flowers, washed with boiled water. You can make an infusion. For these purposes, take 5 bottles with dark glass and half fill with flowers, and fill the remaining space with triple cologne. Insist in a dark place for 1 month and rub your knees before going to bed. For treatment, you also need to dry the leaves, which are subsequently filled with boiling water. Every day 1 tbsp. This mixture must be chewed for as long as it takes to complete the 3, 000 steps. Such treatment with folk remedies is quite effective.
  2. Lapping is a product that must be rubbed into the area of the knee joint in case of arthrosis. It's pretty simple to do. To do this, take the yolk of a chicken egg and mix it with a small spoonful of turpentine. A large spoonful of apple cider vinegar is also poured into it. Everything is mixed and applied overnight. Before going to bed, the knee is smeared with such a medicine, wrapped in a woolen scarf, which is removed only in the morning. Having opened the scarf, you will need to thoroughly rinse the area of rubbing in the product. In order to treat arthrosis with this recipe, you need to use it regularly for several weeks. Although, the first results will already be noticeable on the 3rd day of using the product.
  3. Burdock. According to the folk recipe, it is necessary to take 2-3 young burdock leaves and apply it to the sore knee, wrapping it with a bandage. To achieve the effect, the knee should be insulated with a warm handkerchief and the compress should be left overnight. The procedure should be repeated every day for a week. This will remove the swelling and reduce pain. To enhance the effect, it is recommended to pre-lubricate the knee with saber oil. In this case, the burdock must be applied to the knee with the back side, and on top of it make a plastic bandage and warming with a woolen scarf.
  4. Celandine juice is effective for arthrosis. The tissue impregnated with it is applied to the sore joint. After 50 min. the joint is lubricated with vegetable oil. The duration of treatment is a week. Break - 10 days, and repeat everything.
  5. Put two tablespoons of dried harpagophytum root into a thermos, pour 1 liter of boiling water and leave for at least 2 hours. To successfully treat arthrosis, you should drink 3-4 glasses of the resulting drug in a warm state a day.

Many patients with arthrosis of the knee joint notice a significant improvement in their condition and a decrease in pain and discomfort after using traditional medicine intended for external or external use.

Exercises for arthrosis of the knee joint

A positive result is not possible without a course of remedial gymnastics that can be performed at home. It strengthens muscles, improves blood circulation in the joint. To obtain the desired effect, you need to forget about the intense tension of the joint.

You can lie on your back and lift your leg and hold it in a straightened position on the weight. Or raise your legs alternately from the same position lying on your back 10 - 15 times.

The main rule in gymnastics treatment is slow and measured movements without any jerks.

Sample Diet

Proper nutrition is an important component of successful treatment for arthrosis of the knee joint.

Sample Menu:

  1. Breakfast: oatmeal in water without oil and sugar, fruit juice, boiled egg.
  2. Second breakfast: a glass of low-fat natural yogurt.
  3. Lunch: steamed meat or fish, stewed vegetables, tea without sugar.
  4. Afternoon snack: cottage cheese casserole with nuts, a glass of fruit juice.
  5. Dinner: vegetable salad, apple, tea without sugar.
  6. Second supper: a glass of fat-free kefir.

Eat more often and eat small portions. This will speed up your metabolism, leading to weight loss. Snacks are allowed between main meals when hunger attacks occur. For them, fruits can be used, with the exception of grapes and bananas, whole grain crisps.

Arthrosis of the knee joint is characterized by the process of destruction of the joint cartilage. Due to metabolic disorders, the cartilage tissue does not receive the necessary nutrients and fluids, as a result of which its degeneration occurs.

Elderly people usually suffer from this disease. But, due to the wrong lifestyle, every year there is a tendency to diagnose the disease at an earlier age. The sooner arthrosis is detected, the more effectively it will be possible to cope with it at home, without resorting to medication or surgical treatment.

knee arthrosis

Other treatment options for gonarthrosis

In recent years, modern methods of treating arthrosis of the knee joint, which can be used in combination with drug therapy, and as an independent therapy, have become increasingly popular. In some cases, they can replace or be combined with medication.

New methods of knee arthrosis treatment:

  • kinesitherapy - treatment of a joint using a special set of exercises aimed at a therapeutic result;
  • ozone therapy - a type of physiotherapy treatment with ozone, which is injected into the joint or applied externally;
  • homeopathy;
  • the use of dietary supplements on a natural basis as a treatment and prevention of disease.

Kinesitherapy can significantly prolong the activity of damaged tissues and stop the progression of the disease. This technique is based on the individual selection for each patient of a set of so-called "correct" movements, which can be performed by the patient independently or using special multifunctional simulators and devices. Performing these exercises involves not only muscles, but also helps to normalize the functions of ligaments, tendons, nerve endings, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems.

Kinesitherapy promotes the production of substances such as endorphins in the body, which can have an analgesic effect and have a beneficial effect on the psychoemotional state of the patient. Individual exercises, affecting the muscles, allow:

  • relieve the joint and spine;
  • improve blood flow and lymphatic drainage in the affected areas of the knee joint tissues;
  • restore the elasticity of the ligaments, their contractile and trophic function;
  • improve nutrition and overall joint mobility;
  • to stimulate the processes of regeneration of cartilage and bone tissue;
  • to eliminate pain syndrome.

Ozone therapy, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint, is distinguished by its ease of use, high efficiency, minimal side effects and good tolerance.

Ozone therapy can be applied:

  • externally - the use of ozonated oils, ointments and antiseptic solutions, balneotherapy, flow aeration in special plastic chambers;
  • parenteral - ozonized blood for minor and major autohemotherapy, ozone injection into biologically active points, intraarticular injection, intravenous ozonized saline solution, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection.

The complex of ozone therapy measures is selected individually for each patient. Parenteral administration of ozone has a more pronounced effect and has a number of therapeutic effects:

  • pain reliever;
  • anti-inflammatory;
  • bactericidal;
  • normalizing blood microcirculation;
  • stimulates the restoration of joint tissues.

In parallel with ozone, glucocorticosteroids and chondroprotectors can be used. This combination enhances the medicinal properties of these drugs and reduces their negative effects on cartilage.

To relieve pain, the gas is injected into the area around the pathological focus or directly into the pain points, as well as inside the joint. The number of subcutaneous ozone injection points may vary depending on the condition of the knee joint; at one point injected from 2 to 12 ml of ozone.

In parallel with intra-articular ozone administration, intravenous infusions of ozonated 0. 9% sodium chloride solution (about 400 ml daily) are prescribed to patients. As a rule, the course of ozone therapy consists of 10-12 intravenous injections and 5-7 intra-articular injections. After 3-4 procedures, the patient's mobility of the affected joint improves and the pain syndrome is significantly reduced. The clinical effect of ozone therapy can last for 4-9 months.

bilateral gonarthrosis

Surgery

When the work of the joint is clearly impaired, and conservative treatment does not help, surgical intervention is used. But it rarely comes to that. The affected joint can be replaced with an artificial one (arthroplasty). But more often it is applied at stage III.

The axis of the limb is restored or the bone changes are excised (osteotomy). Arthroscopic intervention is performed through skin punctures. Through punctures in the knee, damaged cartilage is removed from the joints. Then drugs are injected.

Gymnastics for arthrosis of the knee joint

Any treatment for knee arthrosis should only be performed as directed by a physician. Therapeutic gymnastics implies a slow, measured performance of exercises that exclude squats, twisting the joint, jumping. It is best to do gymnastics in the morning, sitting or lying down, for 20 minutes, repeating each exercise 10 times.

  • Lying on your back, you can perform a bicycle exercise, but your legs must be straightened parallel to the floor, make circular movements with your feet, move your legs to the sides, alternately sliding them on the floor, strain your feet up to 10.
  • Sitting on a chair with lowered legs - straighten your legs, while bending your feet, and hold this position, counting to 10, alternately pull each knee to your stomach with your hands and slowly return to the starting position.
  • Having made an emphasis on the wall, standing on the floor, perform alternate swings of the leg back and forth.
  • Putting a straightened leg on a chair, perform oblique movements of a springy nature, while resting your hands on your thigh, as if trying to straighten the leg more strongly.
  • Lying on your stomach, alternately raise your straightened leg and hold it up to 3 counts.
  • Sitting on the floor, spread your legs to the sides, moving them along the floor, pull your knees to your stomach while inhaling and return them to their original position while exhaling.

The main tasks of therapeutic exercises are to relax muscle spasm that causes pain, increase blood supply to the joint, slow down the progression of the disease, and prevent further cartilage destruction. During the period of exacerbation of the disease, exercise is prohibited.

How to treat arthrosis with massage?

Using the method of blows (through the palm, fingers, slaps) at home, you can work out a sore knee joint. It is important to know how certain movements affect the deforming joint:

  • Massage in the form of slaps affects the nerve endings, promotes better blood circulation in the diseased joint.
  • Thanks to the blows through the pressed fingers, there is a positive effect on the tendons, muscles and all articular components. Due to the fact that the blows are softened, the blood circulation is active without damaging the capillaries.
  • The palm is pressed against the joint, and blows are applied to the periarticular places. Thus, the functionality of the inner parts of the joint is increased.
  • Initially, fingers gently and lightly tap the sore joint. As the condition improves, the strength of the blows increases slightly. This procedure is accompanied by tolerable pain.
how to treat arthrosis with massage

Diet

Complex treatment of this disease includes, in addition to the methods described above, also a strict diet. It requires an adequate approach. There is no need to go to extremes. But there are a number of limitations that you have to take into account:

  1. Various pickles and pickles should also be minimized.
  2. Remove animal fats from the diet.
  3. Give up bread and rolls (you can eat black bread, but in moderation), as well as chocolate and sugar. Carbohydrates are not needed for people with osteoarthritis. Their use has an effect on weight gain. And this is a risk factor.
  4. At least eliminate fatty meats. Give up eating duck, goose, lamb, pork.
  5. Limit salt intake. It is not just that arthrosis is also called "saline arthrosis". Doctors advise only to add a little salt to the dishes before the meal itself and not during cooking.
  6. Minimize the use of spices, especially hot ones. They make you feel thirsty and whet your appetite.
  7. Alcoholic drinks, tobacco smoking are strictly prohibited. At least during therapy.

Sample Menu:

  • Breakfast: oatmeal in water without oil and sugar, fruit juice, boiled egg
  • Second breakfast: a glass of low fat natural yogurt
  • Lunch: steamed meat or fish, stewed vegetables, sugar-free tea
  • Afternoon snack: cottage cheese casserole with nuts, a glass of fruit juice
  • Dinner: vegetable salad, apple, tea without sugar
  • Second dinner: a glass of fat-free kefir

A dietitian can help you balance your diet. For example, here are a number of foods that can be eaten, and this is even welcomed with such a diagnosis. First of all, these are products containing chondoprotectors and collagen, they are the building blocks for bones, cartilage, ligaments. The diet should include broth made from beef, especially from bones. The presence in the menu of jelly, aspic, jellied meat is welcomed.

Rehabilitation and Prevention

Only remedial gymnastics and a dosed load on the joint can restore the knee joint in case of arthrosis. If the patient observes all the doctor's recommendations and is ready to fight for his health by all means, in most cases the answer to the question “can arthrosis of the knee joint be cured” is positive.

Prevention consists in the timely provision of assistance for injuries, active movement without overload, maintaining an optimal body mass index.

When making a final decision on treatment, it is worth consulting with your doctor, not forming an opinion based on feedback.

Medicine has learned to successfully treat diseases of the joints, from the consequences of which in the last century they inevitably became disabled. With arthrosis of the knee joint, it is important to seek help in time to determine the stage of the disease and the scope of treatment.

05.03.2021