Knee arthrosis - symptoms, features and treatment

Arthrosis of the knee joint is an inflammatory disease of the intra-articular cartilage, with progressive degenerative disorders of its structure and functions. This condition is very common among older women as well as professional athletes, even at a young age.

Many people believe that the development of osteoarthritis is associated with an excess of salt, but in fact, salt deposits have nothing to do with arthrosis of the knee joint.

Reasons

If arthrosis occurs without any reason, then it is called idiopathic or primary. But if the development of arthrosis was influenced by pathological processes in the body or disease, then this form is called secondary. Its development can be influenced by the following factors:

  • Older age.
  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Traumatic knee injuries.
  • Excessive knee stress.
  • Constant squeezing and repetitive microtrauma - blows and so on.
  • Inflammatory diseases of joints and muscles - arthritis, synovitis, bursitis, myositis, tendinitis, lymphadenitis.
  • Inflammatory processes in the body.
  • Viral, fungal and infectious diseases.
  • Metabolic disorders.
  • Overweight.
  • Calcium deficiency in the body.
  • Hypothermia.
  • Congenital deformities of the knee joint.

Arthrosis affects athletes and people who are often subjected to intense physical exertion and expose the knee joint to it. These are teachers, movers, builders, teachers, and so on.

norm and deviations in arthrosis of the knee joint

Features

Before starting treatment or identifying specific symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint, it is necessary to understand the features of this disease.

The articular surfaces of human bones are covered with cartilage. In some joints, as well as in the knees, the menisci have layers of cartilage that act as shock absorbers. Inter-articular lubrication is the synovial fluid that is produced in our body.

When the knee joint is affected, there is a change in the development of inter-articular lubrication. The cartilage is partially or completely abraded. The body tries to cope with this disorder as well as reduce pain. As the disease progresses, the joint becomes deformed and the bones begin to expand due to osteophytes. This condition occurs only in advanced cases. The surface of the bones is uneven and does not fit together. The result is limited mobility.

Symptoms

The first symptom of arthrosis of the knee joint is pain, which may occur after prolonged physical exertion or constant exertion. Its nature is diverse, often the pain intensifies in the evening or at night, preventing a person from falling asleep, which leads to disruption of normal life. At this stage, it is worth visiting a doctor.

signs and symptoms of knee arthrosis

There are three levels of knee arthrosis, each with its own characteristics. In the first stage, the pain is mild, and for many people it goes away on its own. In addition, discomfort and minor recurrent edema occur. This will require certain treatments: laser therapy and other physiotherapy treatments.

In the second stage, the symptoms become more complicated, to all of the above, there is a deterioration in mobility, and pain intensifies. Minor bleeding may also occur.

Laser therapy and prescription of drugs by a doctor can help in this case. If this is not the case, the pain will constantly increase, and the third degree of the disease will come. At the third stage, the integrity of the cartilage is cardinally violated, up to destruction. Painful feelings are constant, a person cannot normally go for a walk. Climbing stairs is a real problem, joints swell. Various pathologies are observed during movement, trembling of the limbs.

In addition, with arthrosis, redness of the skin appears on the knee, and if you touch them, you can detect an inflammatory process. It occurs due to internal bleeding caused by rupture of blood vessels or veins. If this cosmetic defect is very noticeable, then remove it with a laser.

In the last stages, a person becomes unstable due to muscle weakness and other defects. Walking is possible only with a stick and only for short distances. This results in a deformity of the knee, which even a laser cannot correct. The person becomes motionless.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of arthrosis of the knee joint may include:

  • Analysis of clinical symptoms.
  • General and biochemical blood tests.
  • X-rays.
  • Computed tomography, magnetic resonance.
  • Sonography (ultrasound examination of the joint).
  • Arthroscopy, biopsy and biochemical studies of synovial fluid.
X-ray as a way to diagnose arthrosis of the knee joint

Treatment

Many people are puzzled by the treatment of this disease. The arsenal of drugs is very large, their uncontrolled use is impossible.

If you overuse arthritis medications, you can get stomach ulcers. You can also aggravate arthrosis of the knee joint.

The doctor first prescribes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to patients, which, together with inflammation, also relieve pain. But the treatment does not end there. Extensive exercise, physiotherapy. Special therapeutic exercises are chosen by the doctor, which ensures the maximum therapeutic effect.

Use of drugs

The main treatment is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other remedies are used to improve the nutrition of the cartilage and promote its gradual restoration. The most proven in this regard are drugs based on glucosamine and chondroitin. To speed up the treatment, you can use special creams and ointments that have a local effect.

It is worth noting that it is very dangerous to use pain relievers and antipyretics without a doctor's prescription. This treatment can negatively affect the condition of the stomach, liver and heart. Recently, drugs are produced with minimal negative effects, according to some manufacturers, such drugs can be used for several months.

Gymnastics and Physiotherapy

Other treatments can improve blood flow and therefore nutrition of the cartilage. To strengthen the ligaments and muscles, special exercises are prescribed. But the effect of gymnastics will be only in the early stages, when the joint has changed slightly. Exercises are selected strictly individually, depending on the severity of the disease and the physical abilities of the patient.

gymnastic exercises for arthrosis of the knee joint

These exercises are complemented by large amounts of physiotherapy. Used magnetotherapy and laser therapy, UHF, electrophore, ultrasound and much more.

Injections

In the final phase, where physiotherapy and laser do not help relieve pain, they resort to injections into the articular cavity. Preparations based on hyaluronic acid increase the regenerative properties of cartilage. However, often such treatment leads to the complete uselessness of the cartilage.

Endoprosthetics

Knee replacement is a last resort when you are unable to sleep or move normally.

Prevention

Osteoarthritis most often occurs in old age, so its prevention should be dealt with from a young age, especially after 30 years. To do this, you need:

  1. Do not overload the knee joint and exert a rational load on the legs.
  2. Don't carry heavy things.
  3. Eat right.
  4. Lead an active lifestyle.
  5. To cure all inflammatory and infectious diseases in the body in time.
  6. To control the body weight, as the extra weight puts a very heavy load on the knee joint.
  7. Do not overcool the joints.
  8. Avoid knee injuries.
  9. Wear special knee pads when playing sports.
  10. With a constant load on the knees, do self-massage regularly.
knee replacement surgery for arthrosis
03.03.2021