The surfaces of the bones that form the joint are covered with a special, hyaline cartilage - smooth, providing the least frictional force for the motility of the articular surfaces. If arthrosis is diagnosed, it means that the cartilage is in the process of destruction.
As it progresses, the destructive process spreads to the bones, and then to the joint capsule.
According to medical statistics, osteoarthritis affects 12% of the world's population, most of whom are elderly people over 65 years old. However, every year there is an alarming trend towards an increase in the number of cases among young people.
The diagnosis is not fatal, but arthrosis is insidious with its relapses and the threat of complete disability.
The disease develops gradually, four stages can be conditionally distinguished:
If the pathological process is not stopped, the joint will undergo the following adverse changes:
This disease affects absolutely any articular surfaces! Moreover, despite the same pathology mechanism, it is classified into several types.
So, depending on which joints are sick, there are:
According to the specifics of the pathological process in the cartilaginous tissue, there are:
For reasons of pathology, there are:
Important to know!There are no arthrosis of internal organs, for example, arthrosis of the heart is not a type of disease, but a consequence: a violation of cardiac activity due to the destruction of the cartilage of the thoracic region.
There is another classification, according to whether the disease is independent or caused by provoking factors:
There are quite typical signs of arthrosis of all localizations, which, depending on the degree of development of the pathology, differ in their severity:
The most initial signs of impairment are mild to moderate, short-term pain that almost never occurs at night, but usually appears only with stress on the articular surface.
When the inflammatory processes have passed into their final stage, the patient begins to feel unbearable, "gnawing" pains due to blood stagnation and increased pressure in the joint capsule. The pains are characterized by a long duration, at any time of the day, and regardless of whether the affected area is at rest or in motion.
This symptom is typical for a fairly advanced disease. At the same time, in the early stages, the patient still feels in the morning hours, after waking up, discomfort when moving in the form of a feeling of some stiffness.
With the progression of destructive reactions, the patient notices:
Finally, at the fourth stage of pathology, ankylosis is formed in the form of replacement of joint tissues with scars, with a complete loss of functionality.
Crunch can be accompanied by any dysfunction of bones and cartilage, not only caused by arthrosis.
However, this disease is characterized by the sound:
Noticeable changes appear in the later stages. So, the axis of the affected limb is bent, and the articular region itself is disfigured - it grows in size, the shape changes ugly.
All this testifies to the irreversible destruction of the joint, inside which a new tissue without a definite structure has formed.
If such a disease-causing process occurs in the knee, it means that the load on the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints will increase, which will eventually damage them.
If the outwardly deformed part of the body is also swollen, or swollen, it means inflammation of the synovial membrane, due to which synovial fluid accumulates in large quantities in the joint capsule, causing severe pain.
Pathology can occur both in a single joint and spread to several. This disease is least common at a young age - there is still enough vitality for self-healing of the body.
Nevertheless, for all age groups, the causes of occurrence in their direction of exposure are:
Internal causes are factors provoking a negative change in the joint in the form of joint inflammation. Distinguish between inflammations of various origins:
In addition, the causes of internal exposure include congenital or acquired abnormalities in the structure of cartilage tissue and malnutrition, which may be associated with:
Exacerbation of many diseases of the musculoskeletal skeleton also leads to cartilage degeneration.
External causes of the development of the disease are such factors damaging the joint as:
According to the clinical manifestations and the process of disease progression, four stages of arthrosis are distinguished:
All four stages are uneven: during the pathological period, sharp exacerbations and moments of remission are possible.
It has been clinically proven that treatment and prevention in the form of elimination of the provoking factors of hyaline cartilage lesions, although they do not eliminate the disease at the initial stage, stop its development and restore the functionality of the joint.
Basically, the disease of small and moderate severity is treated with conservative methods. In the case of serious destruction of the cartilaginous surface, resulting in the destruction of bones, surgical arthroplasty is indicated.
In this case, the main principle in the treatment are:
While treating comprehensively, but at home, you can additionally resort to healing recipes of traditional healers who offer effective treatment of health problems through herbs and bee products.
Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint with burdock also helps: the leaf is bandaged to the sore spot, which is insulated for the whole night.
Important to know!Using herbal medicine, it is necessary, to enhance the effect, to forget bad habits and take care of proper nutrition.
Medical treatment related to the classical method of therapy is subdivided, depending on the dosage form used, into drugs:
The pharmaceutical industry produces medical ointments based on natural, highly active ingredients. Gel products that are applied to the skin help well.
Injections, not only intravenously and intramuscularly, but also directly into the affected area, for example, with non-steroidal drugs, have proven themselves very well in the treatment.
So, intra-articular injections are injected into damaged articular tissues:
A special group in drug therapy is the so-called chondroprotectors for arthrosis, containing the structural elements of hyaline cartilage, and thereby restoring it.
These drugs are available in the form of tablets and capsules for oral administration through the gastrointestinal tract (by mouth).
Additionally, patients are prescribed NSAIDs, anti-inflammatory drugs for arthrosis of the non-steroidal group, which relieve acute pain and relieve exacerbations.
Pain relievers are also used as a blockade.
In addition, complex vitamins are prescribed for arthrosis.
Medical bile, applied in the form of compresses to the skin, is recommended from natural topical preparations.
Special exercises and remedial gymnastics (LFK) proved to be excellent, the complex of which gives physical activity to the unhealthy part of the body sparingly, dosed.
Well-known doctors have developed their own therapeutic exercises.
Important to know!Exercise is very effective in helping to restore health, but only if you resort to it at the very beginning of the development of the disease!
Medical massage, which improves microcirculation and nutrition of deep tissues, has a very beneficial effect on treatment.
In such a condition, it is important to adhere to a correct, balanced diet in order to slightly improve the patient's condition. Abstaining from overeating, excluding animal fats and fried foods is recommended.
Important to know!In addition, in the fight for healthy cartilage, it is necessary to use physiotherapy in the form of magnetic therapy, electrophoresis, paraffin wrapping and therapeutic mud.
First of all, with complaints of pain in the joints of the bones, you should go to a therapist. It is he who, summarizing the patient's anamnesis, and questioning him in detail, will give a referral to the necessary narrow specialist.
This can be, depending on the cause of the disease and its type, doctors such as: