Ankle osteoarthritis is a chronic disorder of joint cartilage, which develops gradually. When this tissue becomes thin, are destroyed. If the time treatment was initiated, the patient is completely disturbed function represented by joints which leads to disability.
The mechanism of the development and causes of pathology
The disease begins with the fact that the ankle joint synovial fluid produced less cartilage is nourished and lubricated worse. The joint space becomes narrower, and bones can heal at all. Started crushatron to pay is almost impossible. However, the treatment is necessary to slow down its development.
Ankle osteoarthritis is a degenerative inflammatory process. Pathology affects not only hard tissues but also muscles, tendons, blood vessels, nerves.
So, crushatron the ankle joint occurs due to such reasons:
- Changes in the joints and ligaments associated with age. That is, most often this disease is observed in people, stepped 60-year milestone. If the patient did not have abnormalities in health, the disease develops much slower. The disability appears not always.
- Severe obesity (2-4 degree). Excessive body weight has a negative impact on the ankle joints of the legs, so they wear out much faster. If obese, the patient has children, the osteoarthritis of the ankle joint may occur in 20 years.
When obesity occurs, the load on different organs and systems of the body, including the foot area
- High load on the ankle, which occurs as a result of training, hard work.
- Fractures of the ankle joint.
- Congenital deformity of the foot, as well as acquired flat feet.
- Genetic predisposition. Getting arthritis at risk those people who have close relatives with the same disease.
- The constant wearing of flat shoes or heels.
- Uneven load on the joint caused by improper resistance of the articular surfaces.
Regarding the mechanism for development of osteoarthritis, it is simple. At a constant compression of the cartilage, and also due to changes in the chemical properties of synovial fluid, the structure of hard tissues is disturbed. That is, in cartilage appear microscopic cracks, they become much thinner.
Irritum off, small particles of cartilage can injure the bone surface even more. Such a state provokes an increase in the sensitivity of receptors in iuncturam, there are pain and other symptoms.
Varieties of the disease
Ankle osteoarthritis can be:
- Primary. Degenerative processes occur even in healthy cartilage. They can begin due to the very strong load on the joint.
- Secondary. In this case, the pathological process is more serious in nature, and the destruction becomes visible. Degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue has already occurred.
After internal or external injuries to the joints can occur post-traumatic arthrosis of the ankle joint. Therefore, any damaged limbs need to be treated quickly and efficiently.
Symptoms depending on the stage of the disease
So, osteoarthritis of the ankle has the following symptoms:
- Pain after load on the joint.
- Creaking or crunching in the joint.
- Stiffness and pain in the morning.
- Too fast fatigue when walking.
- Muscular atrophy (affects those tissues, which are located very close to iuncturam).
- Because of the weakness of the tendons in a patient subluxations happen.
- If the joint develops inflammation, it increases the local temperature, and it swells.
- The natural curvature of the axis of the tibia.
The degree of development of the disease
Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint in a lot depends on what stage of the development of pathology in the patient. Classification of disease as follows:
- First degree. Even when x-ray any changes in the joints still invisible. However, a small morning stiffness still present, though quickly. The treatment should start now.
- Second degree. Here is the mobility of the limb is restricted in the joint heard a crunch when driving, there is a small swelling. X-ray already shows a slight decrease in the interarticular gap. The block of the talus bone becomes flat. The person may experience lameness, morning stiffness lasts longer.
- Third degree. Crushatron in this case is shown very clearly, and deformity of the joints clearly visible. While muscle atrophy is strong, there is significant limitation of movement. Almost always ankle joint requires rest, although in this case, there is pain.
- Fourth degree. There is already of the joint space and mobility is severely disturbed. In the picture you can see the strong growth of osteophytes. Treatment in this case can be only surgical.
As you can see, ankle arthritis develops gradually, so the patient has a chance to start treatment at a time that will allow to slow down its progression.
In order to choose the optimal method of therapy, you must first thoroughly examine the patient. For starters, the patient should be recorded to the traumatologist and orthopaedist. Then, you may need to consult a surgeon.
The patient will be assigned the following studies:
- X-ray of affected by osteoarthritis of the ankle joint.
- Computed tomography or MRI.
Of course, the doctor is obliged to record and analyze the patient's complaints.
What better and safer place — CT or MRI, as well as to many other questions about this responsible radiologist Natalia Petrovskaya:
Basic principles of treatment
If a person discovered deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint, then it must necessarily be treated, and with early therapy, no need to drag it. It provides:
- Anesthesia of the affected joint, as well as addressing other symptoms.
- Elimination of inflammatory process inside it.
- The increase in the volume and range of motion in the affected part of the limb.
- The restoration of the destroyed cartilage.
- Improvement of metabolic processes in all tissues of the joint.
- Slowing degenerative process.
- The rehabilitation of those patients who had a surgery.
Medical therapy of osteoarthritis
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint involves the use of certain pharmacological drugs:
- Non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs that can relieve the symptoms of inflammation and pain. To use these means in the form of tablets, ointments and intra-articular injection. Their dosage depends on the severity of the disease and is determined by a doctor.
- Chondroprotectors for treatment of joints. They contribute to improving the production of synovial fluid and cartilage. Thanks chondroprotectors can normalize the nutrition of tissues and joints. The course of treatment is 2-3 months, while it should be repeated several times a year. A feature of these drugs is that they will be maximally effective only if timely started therapy. If you used drugs by injection, the treatment of osteoarthritis within 15 to 20 days.
- Hormone treatment for intra-articular injection. Need a total of 3-5 injections. Moreover, the injection of medication can only do this once a week.
- The local funds. They have analgesic effect. To use these medicines at home.
Drug therapy is the basis of all treatment. To assign a medication needs a doctor. Even if it is sold without a prescription it it should not be used.
Other methods of treating the pathology
In combination with medication to treat post-traumatic arthrosis of the ankle joint should also be the following methods:
- Hardware stretching and manual therapy.
- Physiotherapy: laser irradiation, ultrasonic treatment, magnetic therapy. Very effective is electrophoresis of drugs, turpentine compress or bath.
- LFK. Therapeutic exercise should be performed daily. The set of exercises is chosen individually for each patient. Exercises are simple enough. For example, from a standing position you need to bend forward and touch the floor with your hands. The knees should not bend. Holding the chair, you need to stand on his heels as high as possible. To survive in such a situation should be 2 seconds, and then the heels slowly sink to the floor. Next, you can perform the same exercise, only to rise will be socks. For starters, exercise therapy should be the most simple, and the load on the ankle is minimal.
- Massage for osteoarthritis of the ankle joint. This way you can not only treat the pathology, but also to prevent it from deteriorating. To perform all of the techniques need an experienced professional who knows the structure of the joints. They promote muscle development, normal nutrition of the cartilage, strengthen ligaments. To begin the massage you need with fingers and move upward to the thigh. One session lasts about 25 minutes. For good results, experts recommend doing massage for the past 2 weeks, after which, you need to make a break for the same period.
If the arthrosis is already running 3-4 stages of development, in this case, conservative treatment will be ineffective. There are already have to resort to surgery.
Long been known that excessive weight is very harmful to the supporting apparatus, contributes to its rapid deterioration. So it should be normalized, aided by proper diet. In addition, a balanced diet will give the chance to provide the body with all the necessary nutrients and elements necessary for its proper functioning.
From the diet should exclude foods that are high in calories: fast foods, fatty fish and meat. Diet involves the consumption of vegetables and fruits, juices, compotes.
Very useful are the bran, quail and chicken eggs, marine fish. And the diet is desirable to include baked potatoes, and dairy products. The diet also involves eating jelly, because it has gelatin, useful for joints. The diet should contain all vitamins of group B.
Of course, you need to eat small portions, it is desirable to abandon the use of alcohol, as it has a detrimental effect not only on the ankle, but also on the organism as a whole.
Prevention of osteoarthritis
As the risk of disability in this osteoarthritis of the ankle joint is very high, it is necessary to try to prevent its development at all. It is important to observe these preventive measures:
- Eat right.
- To avoid injuries to the ankle joint.
- Promptly treat any infectious and inflammatory processes in the body.
- At home to perform complex gymnastics or gymnastics.
- To promptly contact their doctor if there are any signs of deterioration in the functioning of the joint.
If the causes of the development of arthrosis of the ankle joint, you can begin to treat the disease. Therapy must be comprehensive and include not only tablets, but also a set of physical therapy, and other ways of dealing with illness. Only when such treatment of the left or right ankle to keep his mobility and improve the condition.